A will provides for the distribution of certain property owned by you at the time of your death, and generally you may dispose of such property in any manner you choose. Your right to dispose of property as you choose, however, may be limited in certain circumstances to try prevent you from disinheriting a spouse and, in some cases, children. Your Will is likely not going to govern the disposition of your assets and real property that are controlled by beneficiary designations or by titling and so passes outside your probate estate. Such assets include property titled in joint names with rights of survivorship, payable on death accounts, life insurance, retirement plans and accounts, and employee death benefits. These assets pass automatically at death to another person, and your Will is not applicable to them unless they are payable to your estate by the terms of the beneficiary designations for them. Your probate estate consists only of the assets subject to your Will, or to Oklahoma's intestacy laws if you have no will, and over which the probate court (in some jurisdictions referred to as surrogate’s or orphan’s court) may have authority. This is why reviewing beneficiary designations, in addition to preparing a will, is a critical part of the estate planning process. It is important to note that whether property is part of your probate estate has nothing to do with whether property is part of your taxable estate for estate tax purposes.
Wills can be of various degrees of complexity and can be utilized to achieve a wide range of family and tax objectives. If a will provides for the outright distribution of assets, it is sometimes characterized as a simple will. If the will creates one or more trusts upon your death, the will is often called a testamentary trust will. Alternatively, the will may leave probate assets to a preexisting inter vivos trust (created during your lifetime), in which case the will is called a pour over will. Such preexisting inter vivos trusts are often referred to as revocable living trusts. The use of such trusts or those created by a will generally is to ensure continued property management, divorce and creditor protection for the surviving family members, protection of an heir from his or her own irresponsibility, provisions for charities, or minimization of taxes.
Aside from providing for the intended disposition of your property upon your death, a number of other important objectives may be accomplished in your will.
- Guardianship of minor children. You may designate a guardian for your minor child or children if you are the surviving parent and thereby minimize court involvement in the care of your child. Also, by the judicious use of a trust and the appointment of a trustee to manage property funding that trust for the support of your children, you may eliminate the need for bonds (money posted to secure a trustee’s properly carrying out the trustee’s responsibilities) as well as avoid supervision by the court of the minor children’s inherited assets.
- Appoint an Executor without bond. You may designate an executor (personal representative) of your estate in your will, and eliminate their need for a bond. In Oklahoma, the designation of an independent executor, or the waiver of otherwise applicable state statutes, will limit or possibly eliminate the need for court supervision of the settlement of your estate.
- Specify Beneficiaries other than Family Members. You may choose to provide for persons whom the Oklahoma's intestacy laws would not otherwise benefit, such as stepchildren, godchildren, friends or charities.
- Designate others to Replace Your Role. If you are acting as the custodian of assets of a child or grandchild under the Uniform Gift (or Transfers) to Minors Act (often referred to by their acronyms, UGMA or UTMA), you may designate your successor custodian and avoid the expense of a court appointment.